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2021 Spring

NON-VIOLENT CONFLICT: APPLICATION AND THEORY - IRS373/IRS673 Spring 2021


Course
Alexei Anisin
For information about registration please contact our admissions.

About

This course instructs and teaches students to be to evaluate and critically assess the nature of nonviolent struggle. By nonviolence, we refer to non-institutional forms of collective action that range from local protests to large scale regime-change seeking social movements. Also known as civil resistance or civil disobedience, nonviolent direct action has been historically pivotal in enabling regular people to achieve a heterogeneous collection of political goals such as revolution, reforms/concessions, wage increases, workplace rights, national independence, among other outcomes. Many scholars have noted that there is something extraordinary about nonviolent protest and the dynamics of nonviolence have led academics and practitioners to investigate the phenomenon both normatively and positively. This course covers the following categorization nonviolent direct action: 1) individual usages of nonviolence [as espoused in the political theories of principled nonviolence figures]; 2) group-level usages of nonviolence [organized protests and campaigns]. Students will be exposed to quantitative cross-national data sets on nonviolent campaigns as well as event-based data on repression and mass killings. Here, substantial emphasis is placed on regime transition and the role that nonviolence plays in relation to democratization and post-transition outcomes such as democratic standing. The course finishes with an overview of drawbacks that have recently been observed to inhibit generalizations put forward in quantitative assessments of these phenomena.

Course Title Nonviolent Conflict: Application and Theory

Course code: IRS 373; 673

Semester and year: Spring 2021

Day and time: Tuesdays, 1130 – 1415

Instructor: Alexei Anisin, Ph.D.

Instructor contact: alexei.anisin@aauni.edu

Consultation hours: before and after class; by appointment (at a given time for student convenience). Microsoft Teams.

 

Credits US/ECTS

3/6

Level

Advanced

Length

15 weeks

Pre-requisite

none

Contact hours

42 hours

Course type

BA/MA Elective

1.    Course Description

This course instructs and teaches students to be to evaluate and critically assess the nature of nonviolent struggle. By nonviolence, we refer to non-institutional forms of collective action that range from local protests to large scale regime-change seeking social movements. Also known as civil resistance or civil disobedience, nonviolent direct action has been historically pivotal in enabling regular people to achieve a heterogeneous collection of political goals such as revolution, reforms/concessions, wage increases, workplace rights, national independence, among other outcomes. Many scholars have noted that there is something extraordinary about nonviolent protest and the dynamics of nonviolence have led academics and practitioners to investigate the phenomenon both normatively and positively. This course covers the following categorization nonviolent direct action: 1) individual usages of nonviolence [as espoused in the political theories of principled nonviolence figures]; 2) group-level usages of nonviolence [organized protests and campaigns]. Students will be exposed to quantitative cross-national data sets on nonviolent campaigns as well as event-based data on repression and mass killings. Here, substantial emphasis is placed on regime transition and the role that nonviolence plays in relation to democratization and post-transition outcomes such as democratic standing. The course finishes with an overview of drawbacks that have recently been observed to inhibit generalizations put forward in quantitative assessments of these phenomena.

2.    Student Learning Outcomes

Upon completion of this course, students should be able to:

 

  • Explain the differences between principled and pragmatic implementations and theories of nonviolence.
  • Analyze and understand the relationship between nonviolent movements, their relative success or failure, and how such movements impact historical processes.
  • Understand the main theories of nonviolence put forward in Gene Sharp’s (1973) work.
  • Understand the tactical considerations that nonviolent movements undergo.
  • Identify trends in how authoritarian governments respond to nonviolent dissent.
  • Understand the strategies nonviolent movements implement in order to overcome state repression.
  • Understand the interactional dynamics underpinning state repression and nonviolent dissent.
  • Identify multiple roles that media organizations play during nonviolent uprisings.
  • Relate the emergence of new information technologies (social media) to activities of nonviolent movements.
  • Understand the role of external actors, namely NGOs, in nonviolent conflict.
  • Produce several pieces of writing via in-class short responses that reflect understanding of popular theories and concepts of nonviolence.
  • Carry out an in-depth presentation on a historical or contemporary instance of nonviolent direct action.
  • Produce a research paper of academic quality (research and writing skills).
  •      Overview quantitative data on nonviolent campaigns featuring both endogenous and exogenous characteristics relevant to the context in which a given campaign took place under.
  •      MA students are required to utilize data to inform their analyses of a given nonviolent or violent campaign(s).

3.    Reading Material

Required Materials

All required course material is provided in PDF format at the following DROPBOX link

 

  •      Anisin, Alexei. 2014. The Russian Bloody Sunday Massacre of 1905: A Discursive Account of Nonviolent Transformation. Politics, Groups, and Identities 2 (4):643–60
  •      Anisin, Alexei. 2018. Social causation and protest mobilization: why temporality and interaction matter. Territory, Politics, Governance, 6(3), 279-301.
  •      Anisin, Alexei. 2019. Comparing Protest Massacres. Journal of Historical Sociology, 32(2), 258-274.
  •      Anisin, Alexei. 2020. Debunking the Myths Behind Nonviolent Civil Resistance. Critical Sociology, 46(7-8), 1121-1139.
  •      Anisin, Alexei. 2020. Unravelling the complex nature of security force defection. Global Change, Peace & Security, 32(2), 135-155.
  •      Carew, R. 1986. The use of nonviolence as a framework for social work activity in the area of social change: a course outline. International Social Work, 29(4), 293-305.
  •      Celestino, Mauricio Rivera, and Kristian Skrede Gleditsch. 2013. Fresh Carnations or All Thorn, No Rose? Nonviolent Campaigns and Transitions in Autocracies. Journal of Peace Research 50 (3): 385-400.
  •      Chenoweth, E. and Stephan, M. J.,2008. Why civil resistance works: The strategic logic of nonviolent conflict. International security, 33(1), 7-44.
  •      Degaut, Marcos. 2017. Out of the Barracks: The Role of the Military in Democratic Revolutions. Armed Forces & Society, June. https://doi.org/10.1177/0095327X17708194.
  •      Gandhi, M. 1987. Mahatma Gandhi and Leo Tolstoy Letters. Long Beach Publications.
  •      Hendrick, G. 1956. The Influence of Thoreau's" Civil Disobedience" on Gandhi's Satyagraha. New England Quarterly, 462-471.
  •      Hill, Daniel W. Jr., and Zachary M. Jones. 2014. An Empirical Evaluation of Explanations for State Repression. American Political Science Review 108 (3):661–687.
  •      Kadivar, Mohammad Ali, and Neil Ketchley. "Sticks, Stones, and Molotov Cocktails: Unarmed Collective Violence and Democratization." Socius 4 2018: 2378023118773614.
  •      Kim, N. K., & Kroeger, A. M. 2019. Conquering and coercing: Nonviolent anti-regime protests and the pathways to democracy. Journal of Peace Research.
  •      McGuinness, Kate. 1993. Gene Sharp's Theory of Power: A Feminist Critique of Consent. Journal of Peace Research 30 (1): 101-115.
  •        Nepstad, Sharon Erickson. 2013. Mutiny and Nonviolence in the Arab Spring Exploring Military Defections and Loyalty in Egypt, Bahrain, and Syria. Journal of Peace Research 50 (3):337–49.
  •       Pischedda, C. 2020. Ethnic Conflict and the Limits of Nonviolent Resistance. Security Studies, 29(2), 362-391.
  •       Schaftenaar, Susanne. 2017. “How (Wo)men Rebel: Exploring the Effect of Gender Equality on Nonviolent and Armed Conflict Onset.” Journal of Peace Research, October, https://doi.org/10.1177/0022343317722699.
  •       Sharp, G. 198 Methods of Nonviolence Action. Available at: http://www.aeinstein.org/nonviolentaction/198-methods-of-nonviolent-action/
  •       G. From Dictatorship to Democracy. Albert Einstein Institution.
  •       Schock, K. 2013. The Practice and Study of Civil Resistance, Journal of Peace Research 50:3: 277-290
  •      Sutton, Jonathan, Charles R. Butcher, and Isak Svensson. 2014. Explaining Political Jiu-Jitsu Institution-Building and the Outcomes of Regime Violence against Unarmed Protests. Journal of Peace Research 51 (5):559–73.

Recommended Materials

  •                    Ackerman, Peter, and Christopher Kruegler. 1994. Strategic Nonviolent Conflict: The Dynamics of People Power in the Twentieth Century. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publishers.
  •       Ackerman, Peter, and Jack DuVall. 2000. A Force More Powerful: A Century of Nonviolent Conflict. New York: Palgrave
  •      Bramball, S. J. 2012. 21st Century Revolution. Dr Stuart Jeanne Bramhall.
  •      Butler, J., 2020. The force of nonviolence: An ethico-political bind. Verso Books.
  •                        Chenoweth, Erica, and Maria J. Stephan. 2011.Why Civil Resistance Works: The Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Conflict. New York: Columbia University Press.
  •     Gan, Barry L. Violence and nonviolence: An introduction. Rowman & Littlefield, 2013.
  •       Nepstad, S. E. 2011. Nonviolent revolutions: Civil resistance in the late 20th century. Oxford University Press.
  •        Sharp, Gene and Joshua Paulson, 2005. Waging Nonviolent Struggle: 20th Century Practice And 21st Century Potential, The Albert Einstein Institution.

4.    Teaching methodology

This course is research intensive – meaning that students will be required to not only do all of the readings, but also go beyond and potentially find their own sources pertaining to empirical implementations of nonviolent direct action. Each week we will meet and overview the concepts and theories of various scholars and practitioners of nonviolence. It is of crucial importance to note that this is a very collaborative course when it comes to the environment we will have each week during class. Students are required to respond to lecture material not only with questions, but with well-thought out comments.

 

While the first segment of the course overviews philosophical as well as strategic elements of nonviolence, the second half of the course is comprised of specialist literature on nonviolence found in social scientific literature.


Given this is a course that is for Bachelor as well as Masters students, the workload (specifically assigned questions + assignment instructions) will reflect each academic level respectively. MA students are specifically required to be able to open, interpret, and utilize data to inform their essay(s) content as well as presentation(s).

 

5.    Course Schedule

Readings marked with a * are required to be read only for MA students

 

Date

Class Agenda

Session 1

Feb. 9

Topic: Introduction

Description: Film: “Bringing Down a Dictator”

Reading:

Sharp, G. 198 Methods of Nonviolence Action. Available at: http://www.aeinstein.org/nonviolentaction/198-methods-of-nonviolent-action/

Schock, K. 2013. The Practice and Study of Civil Resistance, Journal of Peace Research 50:3: 277-290

Assignments/deadlines: Watch documentary + do readings for the following week.

Session 2

Feb. 16

Topic: Theories of Political Power; Gene Sharp’s ideas on power and regime transition

Description: We will overview the primary scholarly framework used to study nonviolence over the last half century. Specific emphasis will be placed on its assumptions on political power. – Continue watching the documentary: “Bringing Down a Dictator”

Reading:

Sharp. G. From Dictatorship to Democracy. Albert Einstein Institution.

Assignments/deadlines: do readings for the following week.

Session 3

Feb. 23

Topic: Gandhian Nonviolence

Description: The significant historical influence of Gandhi on the philosophy of nonviolence will be explained; special footage of Gandhi’s leadership in the struggle against British Colonization in India will be viewed. Additionally, an overview will be carried out of the historical nature of nonviolence with special attention being given to Christian pacifists.

Reading:  

Hendrick, G. 1956. The Influence of Thoreau's" Civil Disobedience" on Gandhi's Satyagraha. New England Quarterly, 462-471.

*Carew, R. (1986). The use of nonviolence as a framework for social work activity in the area of social change: a course outline. International Social Work, 29(4), 293-305.

Assignments/deadlines: do readings for the following week; Begin watching the Oscar winning film, Gandhi 1981.

Session 4

March 2

Topic: Christian Pacifism

Description: Overview of the religious roots of principled nonviolence

Reading:  

Gandhi, M. (1987). Mahatma Gandhi and Leo Tolstoy Letters. Long Beach Publications.

Assignments/deadlines: do readings for the following week; Continue watching Gandhi.

Session 5

March 9

Topic: The relationship between nonviolent protest and movement success rates

Description: Introduction to the first quantitative assessment of nonviolent campaigns (1900-2006)

        Reading:

        Chenoweth, Erica, and Maria J. Stephan. 2008. Why Civil Resistance Works: The Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Conflict.

Assignments/deadlines: do readings for the following week; explore the NAVCO 2.0 data set via Google Sheets or Excel; Continue watching Gandhi.

Session 6

March 16

Topic: Repression Backfire

Description: What happens when repression does not work? An overview of the dynamics of one of the more important concepts in the nonviolence literature will be provided.

        Reading:

        Anisin, Alexei. 2014. The Russian Bloody Sunday Massacre of 1905: A Discursive Account of Nonviolent Transformation. Politics, Groups, and Identities 2 (4):643–60

        Sutton, Jonathan, Charles R. Butcher, and Isak Svensson. 2014. Explaining Political *Jiu-Jitsu Institution-Building and the Outcomes of Regime Violence against Unarmed Protests. Journal of Peace Research 51 (5):559–73. 

Assignments/deadlines: do readings for the following week; explore the NAVCO 2.0 data set via Google Sheets or Excel; Finish watching Gandhi.

Session 7

March 23

Topic: Feminism/Gender and Nonviolence

Description: This week will overview the role of women in nonviolent struggles.

Reading:

McGuinness, Kate. 1993. Gene Sharp's Theory of Power: A Feminist Critique of Consent. Journal of Peace Research 30 (1): 101-115.

*Schaftenaar, Susanne. 2017. “How (Wo)men Rebel: Exploring the Effect of Gender Equality on Nonviolent and Armed Conflict Onset.” Journal of Peace Research, October, https://doi.org/10.1177/0022343317722699.

Assignments/deadlines: do readings for the following week; explore the NAVCO 2.0 data set via Google Sheets or Excel; work on the midterm assignment

Session 8

March 30

Midterm

Topic: Nonviolence and Ethnicity

Description: We will give particular attention to the question of ethnic diversity and its relationship to campaign organization

Reading:

Pischedda, C. (2020). Ethnic Conflict and the Limits of Nonviolent Resistance. Security Studies, 29(2), 362-391.

Assignments/deadlines: do readings for the following week

Session 9

April 13

Topic: State Repression and Nonviolence I

Description: Explore the dynamics that underlie state/governmental behavior that has repeatedly been aimed at quelling threats from civilians who organize and act collectively

Reading:

Hill, Daniel W. Jr., and Zachary M. Jones. 2014. An Empirical Evaluation of Explanations for State Repression. American Political Science Review 108 (3):661–687.

*Anisin, A. (2019). Comparing Protest Massacres. Journal of Historical Sociology, 32(2), 258-274.

Assignments/deadlines: do readings for the following week; choose presentation topic

Session 10

April 20

Topic: State Repression and Nonviolence II – The Repression/Protest Nexus

Description:

Reading:

Anisin, A. (2018). Social causation and protest mobilization: why temporality and interaction matter. Territory, Politics, Governance, 6(3), 279-301.

Assignments/deadlines: do readings for the following week; work on presentation

Session 11

April 27

Presentations

Topic: Nonviolence and Democratization

Description: Investigation of a rapidly growing literature investigates how nonviolent strategies and campaign organization are related to post-transition outcomes

Reading:

Celestino, Mauricio Rivera, and Kristian Skrede Gleditsch. 2013. Fresh Carnations or All Thorn, No Rose? Nonviolent Campaigns and Transitions in Autocracies. Journal of Peace Research 50 (3): 385-400.

*Kim, N. K., & Kroeger, A. M. (2019). Conquering and coercing: Nonviolent anti-regime protests and the pathways to democracy. Journal of Peace Research, 0022343319830267.

Assignments/deadlines: do readings for the following week

Session 12

May 3

Presentations

Topic: Military/Security force defection

Description: Investigate dynamics pertaining to the claim that among the most prominent factors that influence whether a nonviolent campaign will succeed or fail is whether the campaign can encourage armed forces to defect from their principal.

Reading:

Degaut, Marcos. 2017. Out of the Barracks: The Role of the Military in Democratic Revolutions. Armed Forces & Society, June. https://doi.org/10.1177/0095327X17708194

Nepstad, Sharon Erickson. 2013. Mutiny and Nonviolence in the Arab Spring Exploring Military Defections and Loyalty in Egypt, Bahrain, and Syria. Journal of Peace Research 50 (3):337–49.

*Anisin, A. (2020). Unravelling the complex nature of security force defection. Global Change, Peace & Security, 32(2), 135-155.

Assignments/deadlines: do readings for the following week; began exam preparation

Session 13

May 10

Topic: Critiques and Problems of Nonviolence

Description: Nonviolence is not without its critics – here we will overview some criticisms of nonviolence both as a practice and as a philosophy.

Reading:

*Kadivar, Mohammad Ali, and Neil Ketchley. "Sticks, Stones, and Molotov Cocktails: Unarmed Collective Violence and Democratization." Socius 4 (2018): 2378023118773614

Anisin 2020. Debunking the Myths Behind Nonviolent Civil Resistance. Critical Sociology, 46(7-8), 1121-1139.

Assignments/deadlines: exam preparation

Session 14

May 17

Topic: Overview for Final Exam

Description: Categorical summary of the course syllabus is carried out, focused on the differentiation of segments of literature on empirical studies of nonviolence

Reading: none

Assignments/deadlines: study for and write final examination

6.    Course Requirements and Assessment (with estimated workloads)

Assignment

Workload (hours)

Weight in Final Grade

Evaluated Course Specific Learning Outcomes

Evaluated Institutional Learning Outcomes*

Class Participation

10

10%

Regular contribution to class discussions, critique of readings

2

Mid Term Essay(s)

45

30%

Demonstrate an ability to logically differentiate principled and pragmatic forms of nonviolence with reference to specific thinkers and theories

1

Presentation

35

25%

Ability to independently carry out investigative research. To articulate a theoretically informed viewpoint, and to convey this viewpoint to audience members and peers.

3

Final Exam

60

35%

Ability to demonstrate an understanding of course material with sufficiently detailed answers of core concepts relevant to nonviolence theory and practice

1

TOTAL

150

100%

 

 

*1 = Critical Thinking; 2 = Effective Communication; 3= Effective and Responsible Action

7.    Detailed description of the assignments

Assignment 1: Class Participation

Assessment breakdown

Assessed area

Percentage

Procedural:

1. Being physically present

2. Be in possession of the assigned readings for that week (electronic or print form acceptable)

3. Complete an "lecture watching participation" assignment each week via the NEO Forum Tab in which you will answer a straightforward question pertaining to lecture to prove your attendance. The posts are to be a minimum of 100 words and are required to be completed 48 hours after the start of each class (for example, after Lecture 2, students will have 48 hours to finish their posts)

50%

Applicational:

1. Analyze assigned readings

2. Raise questions or bring up discussion point(s)

3. Responding to questions and criticize classmates’ opinions

4. Base responses in theories and concepts from the syllabus

5. Defend your argument’s validity through reference to assigned readings

50%

Assignment 2: Mid Term Essay(s) featuring questions pertaining to the first half of the course (to be turned in via NEO; turnitin app)

Assessment breakdown

Assessed area

Percentage

Procedural:

1. Utilize adequate sources from the syllabus (e.g. at least one from each week of instruction) to answer the essay prompts.

2. Turn in your assignment (via email) before the deadline (23:59 on day of deadline – Class 6)

50%

Applicational:

1. Show an ability to be reasoned and convincing in your explanation of theories and concepts.

2. Use at least one reference (external historical or newspaper) to support your case-example.

3. Spend no less than 500 words on each question/answer.

4. MA students need to draw on at least 3 different variables from NAVCO 2.0 to compliment their answers

50%

Assignment 3: Presentation

Assessment breakdown

Assessed area

Percentage

Procedural:

1. Pick either a violent or nonviolent campaign to assess

2. Explain its origin, motivations, context of operation

3. Using course literature, account for why the campaign either succeeded or failed

4. MA students need to categorize the POLITY score of the regime the campaign challenged

5. MA students need to trace/identify if there were any episodes of severe repression aimed at the campaign + the subsequent impact that repression had on mobilization (i.e. did it increase or decrease it?)

50%

Applicational:

1. Show an ability to be reasoned and convincing in your explanation of theories and concepts.

2. Make sure your presentation fits the assigned time frame (15 minutes max for BA students; 20 min max for MA students)

3. Use adequate citations and sources

4. MA students need to draw on at least 5 different variables from NAVCO 2.0 to compliment their answers

50%

Assignment 4: Final Exam (This will be a take-home exam, featuring a comprehensive evaluation of course readings. Student’s will have a 24 hour window to complete it then submit it via Turnitin on NEO)

Assessment breakdown

Assessed area

Percentage

Procedural:

1. Answer the required number of essay questions (2)

2. Follow the guidelines and instructions provided

3. Put first and last name on first page of both essays 

50%

Applicational:

1. Articulate arguments that are logical and clearly understandable

2. Critically explain major concepts and theories from the course

3. Show an ability to explain themes drawn from the primary readings

4. Use relevant empirical examples to back up your argument

5. Ensure that each paragraph in your essay is logically connected

6. Establish a direct and clearly articulated connection between the introduction and conclusion of your essay(s)

50%

 

8.    General Requirements and School Policies

General requirements

All coursework is governed by AAU’s academic rules.Students are expected to be familiar with the academic rules in the Academic Codex and Student Handbook and to maintain the highest standards of honesty and academic integrity in their work.

Electronic communication and submission

The university and instructorsshall only use students’ university email address for communication, with additional communication via NEO LMS or Microsoft Teams.

Students sending e-mail to an instructor shallclearly statethe course code and the topicin the subject heading, for example,“COM101-1 Mid-term Exam. Question”.

All electronic submissions are through NEO LMS. No substantial pieces of writing (especially take-home exams and essays)can be submitted outside of NEO LMS.

Attendance

Attendance, i.e., presence in class in real-time, is expected and encouraged. However, the requirement that students miss not more than 35% of real-time classes is temporarily suspended due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Absence excuse and make-up options

Should a student be absent from classes for relevant reasons (illness, serious family matters), s/he can submit to the Dean of Students an Absence Excuse Request Form supplemented with documents providing reasons for the absence. These must be submitted within one week of the absence. If possible, it is recommended the instructor be informed of the absence in advance. Should a student be absent during the add/drop period due to a change in registration this will be an excused absence if s/he submits an Absence Excuse Request Form along with the finalized add/drop form.

Students whose absence has been excused by the Dean of Students are entitled to make up assignments and exams provided their nature allows. Assignments missed due to unexcused absences which cannot be made up, may result in a decreased or failing grade as specified in the syllabus.

 Students are responsible for contacting their instructor within one week of the date the absence was excused to arrange for make-up options.

Late work: No late submissions will be accepted – please follow the deadlines.

Electronic devices

Electronic devices (e.g. phones, tablets, laptops) may be used only for class-related activities (taking notes, looking up related information, etc.). Any other use will result in the student being marked absent and/or being expelled from the class. No electronic devices may be used during tests or exams unless required by the exam format and the instructor.

Eating is not allowed during classes.

Cheating and disruptive behavior

If a student engages in disruptive conduct unsuitable for a classroom environment, the instructor may require the student to withdraw from the room for the duration of the class and shall report the behavior to the Dean.

Students engaging in behavior which is suggestive of cheating will, at a minimum, be warned. In the case of continued misconduct,the exam or assignment will be failed andthe student will be expelled from the exam or class.

Plagiarism and Academic Tutoring Center

Plagiarism is “the unauthorized use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and the representation of them as one’s own original work.” (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2nd Edition, Random House, New York, 1993)

Turnitin’s White Paper ‘The Plagiarism Spectrum’ (available at http://go.turnitin.com/paper/plagiarism-spectrum) identifies 10 types of plagiarism ordered from most to least severe:

  1. CLONE: An act of submitting another’s work, word-for-word, as one’s own.
  2. CTRL-C: A written piece that contains significant portions of text from a single source without alterations.
  3. FIND–REPLACE: The act of changing key words and phrases but retaining the essential content of the source in a paper.
  4. REMIX: An act of paraphrasing from other sources and making the content fit together seamlessly.
  5. RECYCLE: The act of borrowing generously from one’s own previous work without citation; To self-plagiarize.
  6. HYBRID: The act of combining perfectly cited sources with copied passages—without citation—in one paper.
  7. MASHUP: A paper that represents a mix of copied material from several different sources without proper citation.
  8. 404 ERROR: A written piece that includes citations to non-existent or inaccurate information about sources
  9. AGGREGATOR: The “Aggregator” includes proper citation, but the paper contains almost no original work.
  10. RE-TWEET: This paper includes proper citation, but relies too closely on the text’s original wording and/or structure.

 

At minimum, plagiarism from types 1 through 8 will result in a failing grade for the assignment and shall be reported to the Dean. The Dean may initiate a disciplinary procedure pursuant to the Academic Codex. Allegations of bought papers and intentional or consistent plagiarism always entail disciplinary hearing and may result in expulsion from AAU.

If unsure about technical aspects of writing, students are encouraged to consult with the tutors of the AAU Academic Tutoring Center. For more information and/or to book a tutor, please contact the ATC at: http://atc.simplybook.me/sheduler/manage/event/1/.

Course accessibility and inclusion

Students with disabilities are asked to contact the Dean of Students as soon as possible to discuss reasonable accommodations. Academic accommodations are not retroactive.

Students who will be absent from course activities due to religious holidays may seek reasonable accommodations by contacting the Dean of Studentsin writing within the first two weeks of the term. All requests must include specific dates for which the student requests accommodations.

9.    Grading Scale

Letter Grade

Percentage*

Description

A

95–100

Excellent performance. The student has shown originality and displayed an exceptional grasp of the material and a deep analytical understanding of the subject.

A–

90–94

B+

87–89

Good performance. The student has mastered the material, understands the subject well and has shown some originality of thought and/or considerable effort.

B

83–86

B–

80–82

C+

77–79

Fair performance. The student has acquired an acceptable understanding of the material and essential subject matter of the course, but has not succeeded in translating this understanding into consistently creative or original work.

C

73–76

C–

70–72

D+

65–69

Poor. The student has shown some understanding of the material and subject matter covered during the course. The student’s work, however, has not shown enough effort or understanding to allow for a passing grade in School Required Courses. It does qualify as a passing mark for the General College Courses and Electives.

D

60–64

F

0–59

Fail. The student has not succeeded in mastering the subject matter covered in the course.

* Decimals should be rounded to the nearest whole number.

 

Prepared by: A. Anisin

Date: Feb. 1, 2021

 

 

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